Company Token Custom Fields not displaying in Dynamic Content block

Your software
My Mautic version is: 3.43
My PHP version is: 7.8
My Database type and version is: mariadb

Your problem
My problem is:

I originally thought this was a problem of quotes in the img src attribute. Now I’ve tested more thoroughly and I realize that custom “company” fields, despite being available as tokens in Dynamic Content, are not being pulled through.

I’ve seen another topic where something similar happened with dynamic email content. Is there a solution for this, or is it a bug that is only fixed by upgrading?