E-mail sections are aligned horizontally in inbox

Your software
My Mautic version is: 4.4.7
My PHP version is: 7.4
My Database type and version is: MySQL

Your problem
My problem is: I made an email in Paprika Theme, and everything looks fine in the builder and in the browser preview. However, when I send a test mail all sections of the e-mail are next to instead of on top of each other.

I can’t seem to find any setting to change this.
Can anyone help me understand why this happens and what I could do to fix it?

Thank you in advance!

These errors are showing in the log: no errors in log

Steps I have tried to fix the problem: Duplicate e-mail and try again, sending e-mail to different recipient.