Grape JS Builder Works well in Browser but Design broken in Email inbox

Your software
My Mautic version is: 4.2.1
My PHP version is: 7.4.15
My Database type and version is: 8.0.23

Your problem
My problem is:
I am trying to create an email using Grape JS builder, I enabled it cleared cache and everything.
Even created the Template as well, which looks good in the browser, and the builder but when i Send it as test email or actual email to my test contact whole design comes broken.

This is how it looks in the Browser Preview:

And here’s how it looks in the Email Inbox:

These errors are showing in the log: There are no Errors in Either browser console or server logs.

Steps I have tried to fix the problem:
I tried clearing cache of server and browser.
Tried removing background colors from the tables
Deactivated and reactivated the plugin and cleared browser cache again.

I am not sure what to do and how to proceed in this case.