In case you havn’t experienced it yet: It makes a difference in an campaign if you “check for a condition” or “check for a decision”. I would expect they both behave the same. If you have a timeout for the negative part, it should check until the timout is reached.
While this works for “check for a decision”, it only “checks the condition” the first time it runs through the campaign. It will only wait with the action, but never check the condition again in that timeframe.
This is the related ticket: Condition is broken // time delay in negative part is ignored · Issue #10205 · mautic/mautic · GitHub